10 Fascinating Mysteries of Mars

10 Fascinating Mysteries of Mars


For being one of the closest objects to us
celestially, we still know about as much about the planet Mars as we do the depths of the
ocean. Which is to say, not a lot. The things we’ve seen in pop culture about
Mars makes us conjure a red, dusty planet where Matt Damon grows poop potatoes. But there’s more to Mars than that. Mars is the second smallest planet in the
solar system (with only about 10 percent of Earth’s mass), yet Earth and Mars have about
the same amount of actual land. Mars also has the tallest mountain in the
entire known solar system. Mars’ largest moon, Phobos, will be torn
from the planet’s orbit one day, creating a ring that will last hundreds of millions
of years. Those are some really cool things that we
know about the planet. But there still remain many Martian mysteries
that we haven’t quite figured out yet. 10. Mars has two drastically different hemispheres The northern and southern hemispheres of Earth
may have different kinds of topography, but they’re relatively similar. Mars, on the other hand, has a much lower
and flatter northern hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere has an average elevation
that’s about 3 miles higher. That’s a pretty drastic difference, geologically
speaking, and no other planet we know of exhibits such a trait. Scientists once thought that a huge asteroid
could have crashed into the top half of Mars early in its life, making a much flatter northern
hemisphere. Later computer simulations rendered that theory
less than ideal, unless the asteroid only glanced against the planet. Like a big, rocky kiss that flattened part
of Mars. Newer theories suggest that the resulting
magma flow from such a cosmic punch would have inundated the southern hemisphere, creating
the resulting terrain elevation difference. 9. Mars has a lot of methane (usually produced
by living things) We humans normally come across a slight knowledge
of methane amounts from jokes about cow farts. And that’s part of it. Methane is a greenhouse gas that contributes
to the rising warmth of Earth. It’s trapped in our atmosphere and causes
the temperature of our planet to rise even more than carbon dioxide does. Mars, curiously, has a lot of methane too. But here’s the kicker: methane is usually
released by living things. At least for the most part. So why is a planet that we’ve never discovered
life on releasing a biosignature? Well, we don’t know yet. It could have been trapped under ice for ages,
or caused by a release from ancient microbes on the planet, or even from a freak chemical
reaction. We do know that a plume of methane was detected
by spacecraft in Mars’ orbit more than once, which is notable because the gas is finicky
to pick up, especially in such a thin atmosphere that the planet possesses. 8. Mars has signs of water, but it can’t be
from the surface The discovery of ice near the poles of Mars
sent ripples throughout the scientific community in 2008. If there’s ice, that means there’s water,
and if there’s water, that means there could be life, right? Well slow down there, Andretti, because there’s
a lot more going on here. Yes, there have been more and more spottings
of icy polar caps and frost-filled craters. And that’s really cool. But what if we told you there was a subterranean
lake of standing water on Mars? It shouldn’t be possible. Liquids at that depth from the surface should
have a temperature of -68 degrees Celsius. Orbiting satellites have yet to get a visual
on this “lake,” but that could be hard since, you know, it’s underground. And of course a portion of the science community
is using this to prove that life on Mars is an indisputable truth. It is pretty tempting, especially if you think
back to how and where we humans began. 7. Can we live on Mars? This one seems pretty straightforward. It would be a hard no, correct? At least with the technological capabilities
we have currently? And the atmosphere is way different than Earth’s,
so we couldn’t just walk around like we do in everyday life. Yet in direct defiance of all things holy
and sane, NASA is determined to get the ball rolling on human colonization of Mars. By 2030, they think they’ll get feet on
the red planet. Radiation is an obvious concern if we were
to ever set up shop there, so underground shelters would be a requisite. We can’t grow food in the soil. Like, at all. But, humans had to start from scratch here
on Earth, so we would likely at some point find a way to use Mars’ alien resources
to develop new methods of survival. There really isn’t a way to know how we
could fare on Mars, long-term, until the first people reach the planet. 6. Why did Mars totally change its climate? One billion years, in the grand scheme of
the universe, isn’t much at all. Four billion years ago, judging from the vast
veins of old waterbeds on Mars’ surface, water flowed all over the planet. Since we know that Mars is about four and
a half billion years old, science can say with some certainty that the red, dusty planet
we think of now actually used to be quite moist (ew). Then somewhere along the way in the next few
billion years, something happened. The atmosphere of Mars starting disappearing. The sun reached the next stages in the life
cycle of a star and became hotter. So how did the red planet continue to have
water in a place in the universe where the sun should have evaporated it all? Scientists have a pretty cool-sounding theory
that maybe Mars was in orbit much closer to the sun, closer to Venus, and then began trailing
behind like a C student, eventually ending up where it presently resides. It’s also about the best answer we currently
have, because we don’t even really know why Earth has water. 5. We don’t know much about Mars’ two moons For being as close as it is to Earth, we know
very little about Mars, and even less about Mars’ two weird moons, Phobos and Deimos. Some think they may have possibly been asteroids
that were snagged into orbit by Mars, but the problem with that theory is that the shapes
and angles of the moons don’t necessarily fit that scenario. More likely, something struck Mars, hard,
and flung the eventual moons out into orbit. While we’re in the realm of the weird, there
are some formations on Phobos that would give conspiracy theorists night sweats. There’s what seems to be a large rectangular
monolith on Phobos, standing over 90 meters tall. While it’s likely just an abnormal chunk
of Martian rock, it’s still pretty notable. 4. What caused the bright white light in a 2019
photo? When you are in charge of receiving photos
of Mars from a rover light years away, you might be taken aback when you see a picture
with a bright white spot where there shouldn’t be one. An image taken in June 2019 by the Curiosity
rover showed a weird white glow emanating in the distance behind some hills. Aliens were the immediate explanation by non-scientists,
as you would expect. But it was most likely a lens flare or a cosmic
ray, and NASA admittedly has captured tons of these things. The white anomaly doesn’t show up in pictures
taken immediately before or after the event, and the team that created the Curiosity’s
camera system says that they come across oodles of pictures with bright spots every week. Still, can they prove it was a lens flare? That seems exactly like something aliens would
say to throw us off. 3. What lines the dry ice pits at Mars’ poles? We mentioned before that the poles of Mars
contain some known deposits of ice, which means liquid, which means potential for life. We also know that near the southern pole is
a subglacial lake, the first known stable body of water we’ve found on the planet. What’s really interesting about those polar
caps is that nearby there are some pits of dry ice that are lined with … well, we don’t
really know. There is some kind of dust that lines these
gorgeous pits. They’re huge, some of them two hundred feet
across. There is a possibility that the dust they’re
lined with could be gold, but we still don’t know for sure. 2. How do Mars’ giant dust storms happen? The thin, brittle atmosphere on Mars is absolutely
perfect for some truly epic dust storms that can shoot particles at speeds of over 60 MPH
and, in some cases, cover the entire planet for weeks at a time. Thing is, those planetary-scale dust storms
still hold a lot of mystery in them. We think that they may be the largest dust
storms in the solar system, and since the planet is essentially a desert, it doesn’t
take much to get them rolling. And while science is pretty sure that sunshine
is the catalyst, they aren’t too sure how they get to become so massive. One theory thinks that the dust particles
are warmed by the sunlight, which then warm the thin atmosphere, causing more wind, and
thus capturing more particles in a repeating cycle. We, of course, still say aliens. 1. Did Earth life come from Mars? Bear with us here, because we’re about to
get weird. So, perhaps you’re already passingly familiar
with the basic theories of how life began: Big Bang, primordial ooze, etc. Well, early on in Earth’s history, the building
blocks of life were pretty much non-existent. Remember how we mentioned that early Mars
could have been a quintessential Goldilocks planet? What if the essentials for life came from
outer space, survived the trip on a meteorite, for example, and arrived on Earth and evolved
there? It’s something science is highly considering. It’s called panspermia, and it suggests
life arrived on our home planet in the form of spores. So basically, life may have arrived on Earth,
not started on Earth. The primordial soup version of life-building
holds some water, sure, but it’s that exact water that almost kills RNA (a fundamental
part of genetics) in its tracks. Minerals like boron and molybdenum give life
to RNA, and those were plentiful on Mars four billion years ago. So when we talk about aliens on Mars, we’re
probably just referring to our last universal common ancestor.

100 Comments

  • Adrian King says:

    Suggest you watch Journey Through the Universe. They answer most of these questions including Global dust storms (weak gravity and no water to regionalise it), Mars small mass caused its iron molten core to solidify therefore losing its Magnosphere and thus its atmosphere etc etc.

    All easy research really.

    Also, the Grand Tac was by Jupiter and Saturn, not Mars / Venus.

  • WoT Expat says:

    Yup.

  • Jamie Hall says:

    Simon, I love the videos, thank you!

  • Sotiris Koulouriotis says:

    One of the mysteries you didn't assume, is why the hell would we want to live there.

  • Laura McKinlay says:

    As far as I know, panspermia isn't really taken seriously as an origin of life on Earth theory, it's a bit of a cop out as it just moves the problem rather than solving it.

    Primordial ooze has pretty much been dismissed as well; the leading theory at the moment is that life began at hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean.

  • Deona says:

    The universe keeps surprising us , let's stop acting like we truly know anything. All answers are correct until we land boots on a another world.

  • Bertie Pimplebum says:

    A gigantic salt water meteorite has to collide and melt on Mars before it will be habitable.
    For me, it was a human occupied planet 100's of millions of years ago. (UK)

  • HUNTER says:

    A desert planet with massive dust storms… Anakin has nightmares about this place.

  • Jackson Brown says:

    NASA just wants another bucket of cash for wasteful spending

  • Benjamin Brown says:

    You said did a video all about Mars on geographics but all I can find is the one on Pluto

  • drew pedersen says:

    If there is a body of water underground, isn't that more of a "reservoir" than a "lake"?

  • Scott Campbell says:

    After all astronauts arrive on Mars with radiation dementia and jelly bodies from extended zero g, they will slowly die from continued serious radiation exposure and insufficient g to maintain health. Probably wondering, “Why did we take this one way trip?”

  • Big Travis says:

    The way NASA deals in 1/2 truths and deception I wouldn’t be suprised if you could fly to mars , step out of the craft and breath just fine

  • Ryan Oneil says:

    Yea, another show about made up stuff about a planet. There is no proff of anything yet they get paid for it anyway.

  • Josh Levi says:

    it's always alens

  • Julia Naylor says:

    The reason for the interest in Mars is that it was the third solar system body to be mapped after the Moon and the Sun. The Moon and Mars were mapped with early telescopes and the Sun slightly later indirectly when Sunspots were duscovered.

  • Karl Rosengrant says:

    At about the 4:40 mark, you talk about a possibility of how Mars lost its atmosphere. One prevailing theory you may not have come across is that the planet lost its molten core at some point due to a big volcanic eruption. (olympus mons?) Without a molten core, there was no magnetic field protecting Mars from solar winds, (which are charged atoms coming from the sun at incredible velocity).
    Once the solar winds were no longer deflected by a magnetoshpere they reached Mars atmosphere. Just like a pool ball hit with a fast cue ball, each molecule of gas was eventually knocked right out of Mar's gravitional grip by being hit with one of these ultra fast charged atoms coming from the sun.

  • Salgood Sam says:

    Mars' natural resources would not be 'Alien' there, we would be.

  • graham cameron says:

    The biggest question is what does big oil get out of it?

  • Eek-A-Mouse Fan says:

    Do 10 Awkward Stories in the Koran

  • Charlie Cross says:

    It's actually cow belches that release methane not farts.

  • Finished Finnish says:

    Evolution sounds like any man made religion. Why not send some sperm into mars and watch it grow? Or pregnant feminist. That’ll skips few steps of evolution.

  • SirTokesalot says:

    "Meeeeethane"

  • Jane Doh says:

    I have zero conception of why ANYONE wld want to live there. Once you got past the mystique…??

  • AManOfManyFaces says:

    The biggest mystery is how that candy company gets all those Mars Bars to planet Earth?

  • Mulberryman says:

    Ok let's go over these "mysteries" one at a time shall we

    1. That flat part is where the ocean use to be and would resemble earth's ocean floors had the planet's core not cooled before plate tectonics could really take effect
    2. The methane gas is the result of plants animals that died and were covered before Mars lost it's magnetosphere, as well as some microbes that still exist deep underground
    3. The fact that this lakes are completely sealed means that the relatively low body heat of the microbes when combined is enough to keep the water above freezing plus there is the fact that these lakes are far saltier than anything found on earth
    4. Yes we absolutely can (with the right technology of course)
    5. I really don't like repeating myself but here goes,. The core of Mars cooled a long time ago taking away the Martian magnetosphere which then allowed the solar wind to slowly strip away the atmosphere over time including recently evaporated water molecules which in turn caused the oceans to dry up

    Ok, I'll give you those last few although you did mange to answer one yourself

  • kenkire says:

    Meeethane lol

  • Anna D.L says:

    The Illuminati brought us here from Mars. That is their origin and we are all just Martians. 😜

  • FargoneMyth says:

    "meethane"

  • JonsTunes says:

    Poo Potatoes…..nice 👍
    Mars Piper's?
    Ruby Loo?
    Shite Star?
    Royal Poo?

  • NamuLsmaZ Nunya says:

    Sorry, can't finish the video. You mispronounced methane way to many times. It's not "mee" it's "meh" in the pronunciation. It's plain english. You are an englishman are you not.

  • J T says:

    Simon and Team, you guys are obviously using NASA documentation on this one. Do you really trust NASA? A scientific organization controlled by a government? As Simon might read on a story, “Because, you know, government’s have never lied to the World (picture of Hitler and Stalin flash on screen).”

    For years, they showed us photos of a red sky and recently had to say “oh yea, btw, the sky is blue there too!” They just didn’t say “and we were changing the photos for years.”

  • Ba says:

    Why are you not verified by Brave browser yet?

  • Number Six says:

    "Pootatoes." It's just "Pootatoes."

  • welsh jack says:

    No4.Nasa took a photo the day after and the white glare was still there so lense flare…..probably not.. its just another thing they dont want us to know about

  • eci1 says:

    I am having trouble locating your Geographics video on Mars.

  • Freddles279 says:

    A true fact as far as we know, Mars is occupied by nothing but robots.

  • Lloyd McKay says:

    We can only live on planet Earth where we are born. Any other idea is a very childish idea.

  • Kate Russell says:

    For the first 200 years we should treat it like Antarctica.
    1. Set up AI craft with structures to house 20 plus people.
    2. Stay there for a year or two and come back.
    Basically treat it as a research station and keep building it up and exploring new areas.
    We need better technology to live there.

  • Brian Zajac says:

    I had a dream that I was The Terminator and I went to Mars but I was also a secret agent and then mars got an atmosphere when we stopped some bad dude

  • reggiep75 says:

    Mars is interesting but do the flat earthers again. There's got to be some entertaining stuff happened in the last few years, since the last vid.

  • loxxxton poxxxton says:

    Simons Arms don't move after the elbows. Why? It's not him! Replaced by computers to ensure the Simon can continue to be seen on 20 plus you tube channels

  • Gary Whites says:

    Can you please explain the thing about the Enterprise ufo . Look it up

  • Gary Whites says:

    If you can't see that and tell that ufos don't exist then I at going to stop watching you. That tells me you're close minded

  • Gary Whites says:

    If you don't believe the dod with what you see with your own eyes then you are closed minded

  • Gary Whites says:

    When all this time the us gov has been deniented the fact of ufos why would they finally come out and confirm them

  • Al L says:

    He who smelt it dealt it!

  • Wicked Rabies says:

    4:24 is the moment every single cringe is felt by the the disdain for… moist

  • dogfish 33 says:

    Great video, I really hope you decide to make many more videos covering all things astronomical.

  • dafttool says:

    Mars was gashed by the destruction of Tiamat, the planet that used to be where the Asteroid Belt is, or at least, that’s what the ancient Sumerians said, calling the Asteroid Belt the “Hammered Bracelet.”🧐

    No definitive word yet on how & why the Ancient Sumerians would know about the Asteroid Belt.

  • Nich Miller says:

    Small world stories: A close friend/colleague of mine grew up (and is obviously still friends with) one of the scientists working on the ESAs "How to make food in Martian soil" projects. She's just a regular lady who does THAT. Lol.

  • JustLocal says:

    So, there is more to Bruno than just singing!

  • mikecorbeil says:

    Interesting video report. I don't pay attention to other planets, but when such topic is presented, then I'm willing to LISTEN.

  • manic mechanic says:

    Well, dad did always call me a space cadet.

  • John Dudgeon says:

    I love all of your videos and I know there is a big difference between the way we pronounce words here in America vs Britain and none of them have ever bugged me in my 30 years untik today…the way you say Methane absolutely drove me fucken nuts!! 😅🤣

  • Uy Hg says:

    I really like this guy but he plays it so safe it's obvious he's kept in check nothing can be anything other then what mainstream ideology says.

  • Raileigh Greene says:

    I don’t see why life would have to be created somewhere else. It started somewhere! Don’t you think a habitable planet seems like the most encouraging spot.

  • MrUnite4thechildren says:

    Mars is also the originating planet of the Q-36 Explosive Space Modulator.

  • MrSharpshot90 says:

    Seriously where is the link to the Geographics channel video on Mars? I am subscribed there and have watched, what I have thought, EVERY video there. A video about Mars is not on that channel. Please correct me if I am wrong.

  • d rad says:

    Its hard enough living on earth…much less on mars…jeesshhh!!!!

  • SeanRorke says:

    There’s no video about mars on geographics lol that’s Pluto

  • Katherine Mercauto says:

    Meethane? Have we all been pronouncing it wrong all this time? LOL

  • Dude Man says:

    What do you call your scottish landowner? Me-thane

  • Alisha Khan says:

    Isn't mercury the nearest planet most of the time for Earth?

  • DT Undercover says:

    If Elon hires me we could be ready to colonize Mars by 2030… and Mars could have an atmosphere by as soon as 2045… I have 2 "secrets" which have been ignored by the mainstream… I've previously divulged these "secrets"… the irony is it is easily achieved with current technology…

  • Gale Memee of 6 says:

    When you said methane so many times with a long e it made me chuckle.

  • LouisianaJesse says:

    Life, uh, finds a way

  • James Dean says:

    This may seem silly, but he said they did a whole thing on mars 'link below' I tap the drop down, lots of links but not to the mars episode and the hyperlinks displayed don't go to a mars one either… am I looking in the wrong place?
    This is a regular problem I have and it could be just me. Hoping for a little help from you YouTube experts.

  • MadakiNomaroishi says:

    Leftist scientist can't wait to destroy Mars like they have done with Earth

  • Neal Palmer says:

    Poop potatoes yes with butter plz

  • Fake Name says:

    To everyone wondering, the highest planetary mountain in the solar system is Olympus Mons on Mars and is 22 km high (13.6 mi). It is also a shield volcano. However, the tallest mountain in the solar system is actually the central peak of the impact crater called Rheasilvia on the asteroid Vesta. It just barely beats Olympus Mons with a height of 22.5 km (14.0 mi)

  • Ushould Knowbetter says:

    Seriously? We haven't even figured out how to live on this one 😭😭😭😭😭 without killing it! I'm pretty sure that the Universe has pulled the human species card so that we won't kill again! 🤣😂🤣😂🤣
    Maybe, since NASA has the money & that whole "git r done" spirit when it comes to the colonizing of Mars, they should pump the brakes. Maybe use the funds & geo-engineering to fix the Earth 🌍🌎🌏 instead ❓❓❓

  • theblitz9 says:

    Mars's and NOT Mars'

  • Fake Name says:

    "While it is probably just a chunk of Martian rock, it's still pretty notable". If you say so Simon, but not exactly a great sales pitch

  • Throw money at me says:

    Where there's water there's aquafers.

  • Graham Jenkins says:

    A friend of mine who lives on Venus told me that Mars was once a top tourist spot but climate change ruined everything.

  • Dávid Tkáč says:

    I only hope that the first people/settlers on Mars will be Russians or Chinese or such. It would be a real shame if the new planet counted distances in miles and weight in ounces to ignore worldwide used measurement units and satisfied only one small minority of stubborn old-fashioned people.

  • Wolf Hodgkinson says:

    Can we live there? I think the larger question is, why would we want to?

  • Michael Donatello says:

    You own me a new iPhone X Because I did what you said I smash that like button now I need a new screen on my phone

  • Laura Brus says:

    Why does Mars have Methane? The planet farts. Duh.

  • Gamesman01 says:

    Methane is also heavier than air.

  • emar 5207 says:

    I like how Simon threw a reference to The Martian dab smack within the first five minutes. 😂

    Mars = Arrakis 😱

  • Driffter says:

    It's as if cows have nothing to do with climate change… strange.

  • Johnny Shields says:

    Geographics doesn't have a mars video.

  • Christopher Merlot says:

    David Bowie already lives there. And we were created by the Lizard People. Everybody knows that.

  • trashcanhands19 says:

    Not bragging, but I know a bit more about Phobos than even some scientists due to Quake III ; ]

  • Bruce Welty says:

    Your biases are showing. Try looking at some of The Thunderbolts Project's data and conclusions. Like Saturn, Venus, Mars and Terra's proximity. Also, you fail to specify WHICH big bang you are referring to. There are several that actually disagree in many details.

  • RyoPaque Q says:

    "The primordial soup version of life-building holds some water." Literally.

  • Gappasaurus says:

    An abundance of methane means an abundance of martian cows. mystery solved 👍🏽

  • A made up name. says:

    You've got the slight problem of trying to get through the Van allen belt alive, even before you work out how to make sure you can make a return trip FROM mars.

  • Richard Hopkins says:

    But wouldn't any livining organism, even down to the molecular level, be immediately vaporized when that meteorite impacted the earth surface? Or when it got so hot that it exploded out of existence?

  • Sean Gilbert says:

    Pretty weak

  • TearDownGenesis says:

    We should Colonize Venus instead. Better yet, crash Mars into Venus. Makes it the right mass and may make Venus spin faster.

  • Bryce Lewis says:

    “Pootato’s“ missed opportunity

  • Emil Andreasson says:

    The answer is easy! It's aliens of course!

  • Vincent Petrovsky says:

    Life travels by spores, what? We're not fungi nor fern plants. I don't think so. Why not ask if life travels by spaceship? Wouldn't that be more plausible and realistic?

  • Eric Leblanc says:

    And there is the portal to hell 😆

  • Mark Fitzpatrick says:

    Please stop saying “smash that like button.” It makes you sound like my great aunt Dorothy saying “Hench.”

  • mustpaike says:

    The language featured in this video inevitably makes me think that once life is found on some other planet or the existence of aliens is proven true, all the crackpots and 'non-scientists' will overnight become 'scientists'. But even if that never happens, remember Simon, cultural studies is also a science.

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