The Big Bang, Cosmology part 1: Crash Course Astronomy #42

The Big Bang, Cosmology part 1: Crash Course Astronomy #42

What is the nature of the Universe? How’s that for a question? For a long time
we humans had no idea what was going on in the Universe. To help, we made up stories
to either help us explain what we saw, or to make us feel better about what we didn’t
understand. But then science came along, and we started
to understand more. We could test our ideas, and as we got more confident in the process,
our ideas grew. The field of cosmology was born, the study of the cosmos itself. And
now, after centuries of speculation and just-so-stories, we’re starting to get a grasp on the biggest
ideas there are. What is the nature of the Universe? Let’s
find out. By the turn of the 20th century, scientists
knew the Earth was old. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution strongly implied the Earth was
at least millions of years old, and Lord Kelvin, a hugely respected physicist and engineer,
confirmed the Earth was ancient, given that it must have cooled from an initially molten
state. That takes a while, at least a million years. How old exactly, no one knew. As for the Universe
itself, it logically must be as old or older than Earth. A popular model for the Universe
was that it was static: It is and always has been as we see it now, and in general hasn’t
changed. Stars may be born and they may die, but overall things pretty much stayed in balance. The Universe always existed, always will,
always had galaxies in it, and so on. There are variations on this idea, but that’s it in a nutshell,
and it’s what many astronomers believed. This is important. When we try to understand
observations in astronomy, we fit them into a framework of understanding, things we think
we already know. When something doesn’t fit, it’s a problem. Maybe the observation
is wrong, or maybe we’re misinterpreting it. Or maybe the framework is wrong! That’s
a big step to undertake, and needs proper contemplation and skepticism. Science is a
tapestry, and when you yank at one thread, the whole thing may need reweaving. Sometimes – rarely, but sometimes – you
have to yank that thread. The thread that got pulled in this picture
was first uncovered in 1912. That was when astronomer Vesto Slipher — who has the uncontested
coolest name for an astronomer ever — started taking spectra of the so-called “spiral
nebulae”, hoping to get some insight on their characteristics (remember, this was
before we understood what galaxies actually were). It took him several years of observations,
but by 1917 he had observed 25 of them… and he found something astonishing. When he
examined their spectra, he saw that almost all of them were highly redshifted. In other
words, it looked like most of these objects were rushing away from us at high speed, millions
of kilometers per hour! What could that mean? At this point, two different lines of work
began to converge. One was by a Belgian theoretical physicist named Georges Lemaître. In the
1920s he had been studying Albert Einstein’s work, the equations dealing with the behavior
of the Universe as a whole. Einstein had concluded that the Universe was static, unchanging,
but Lemaîtres disagreed. He found that an expanding or contracting Universe fit the
equations better — and, given the redshifts observed by Slipher, he proposed the the Universe
itself was getting bigger, which is why the galaxies appeared to be moving away from us.
Another brilliant physicist, Alexander Friedmann, had also reached the same conclusion. At the same time, astronomers were trying
to determine the distances to the nebulae, now understood to be galaxies in their own
right. As I mentioned in our first episode about galaxies, Edwin Hubble and his assistant
Milton Humason were at the forefront of this. They observed variable stars in the Andromeda Galaxy
that allowed them to get the distance to the galaxy. They then observed some of the same galaxies
Slipher did, and measured their distances. When they compared distances to the redshifts
Slipher observed, they found that the farther away the galaxy was, the faster it was moving
away from us. Let me repeat that, because it’s kind of
important: The farther away a galaxy was, the FASTER it appeared to recede from us. Some other astronomers had also found similar
results, but the work Hubble and Humason clinched it. We now know it to be true for every distant
galaxy we observe: They are all redshifted, all heading away from us. And this ties into what Lemaîtres had concluded:
the Universe is expanding. Wait, what? The Universe is getting bigger.
How can that be? What does that even mean? There are lots of different ways of looking
at this. Lemaîtres himself suggested imagining the cosmic clock running backwards. Right
now, as time inexorably marches on, all the galaxies in the sky are getting farther and
farther away from us. But that means that in the past they were closer together. Run
the clock back far enough, and they get closer and closer together until at some point in
the past everything in the entire universe was crammed together into an über-dense…thing. That is a really, really weird thought. It’s
hard to imagine everything in the whole cosmos – every star, nebula, galaxy; every atom,
electron, and proton – all squeezed together into one infinitely dense blob. But that’s
what the observations are telling us. Lemaîtres called this a “primeval atom,” or, more
colorfully, the “cosmic egg.” Fair enough. But this has implications. If you squeeze
all the energy everywhere into one place, that place is going to be HOT. When the Universe
was a tiny dot it would’ve been unimaginably, hellishly hot. Then, for some reason, it suddenly
expanded violently and started cooling. This sounds an awful lot like an explosion
– BANG! – involving the entire Universe, which is big. What else would you call this
but “the Big Bang”? In fact, the term became popular when astronomer Fred Hoyle
used it on a radio show, and later in a widely-read magazine article. Ironically, he meant it
somewhat disparagingly, since he didn’t think the Big Bang model was correct. To his,
and many other astronomers’, chagrin, the name stuck. I like it. It’s not perfectly accurate,
but it’s succinct. Again, this is all pretty strange, and astronomers
had a hard time accepting it. After all, it went against everything they thought was true
at the time! In science, though, a hypothesis needs to
make testable predictions before it can be taken seriously. What predictions could the
Big Bang model of the Universe make that we can observe today? The speed of light is fast: 300,000 kilometers
per second, or about a billion kilometers per hour. Like I said, fast. But not infinitely fast. The Sun is 150 million kilometers away. It
takes light about 8 minutes to reach the Earth, so in a sense you’re seeing the Sun as it
was 8 minutes ago. The nearest star system to us is Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light years away,
so we see it as it was 4.3 years ago. The Andromeda galaxy is about 2.5 million
light years away. The light we see from it now left that galaxy when Australopithecus
walked the Earth. The farther away something is, the farther
in the past we see it. This is called the “lookback time”, and it’s a crucial
tool for cosmology: By observing very distant objects, we can see the Universe when it was
young! You might think that we could see all the
way back to the moment of the Big Bang, but there’s a problem. At some point back in
time, the Universe was so hot and dense that it was the same temperature as the surface
of a star. It would’ve been very luminous, but also opaque! As it expanded, it cooled, and became transparent.
If we look back far enough, that moment in time when it cleared up is as far back as
we can see. What does that moment look like? By looking at the physics of the Big Bang
— the math that describes how matter, energy, space, and time behave — astronomers could
predict when this moment happened in the lifetime of the Universe: a few hundred thousand years
after the bang itself. Using the idea of lookback time, they could
predict how far away it would be from us, and therefore calculate its redshift. Remember,
redshift stretches the wavelength of light. The light the Universe emitted at the time
would’ve been like a star, in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, but
the light that reaches us billions of years later — now —should be redshifted into
microwave wavelengths. In 1965, a pair of radio astronomers announced
they had found a signal in their radio telescope that was like a background noise, coming from
everywhere in the sky. They tried everything they could to explain it — including scraping
out the bird poop inside their radio telescope, in case that might be causing it — but the
only thing that made sense was that this was indeed the redshifted light from the early
Universe. They had discovered the glow of the fireball leftover from the birth of the
cosmos. Later, in the 1990s, satellite observations
further refined the measurements of this cosmic microwave background, and now it’s essentially
confirmed. This glow was successfully predicted by the Big Bang model, and now we see it
in exquisite detail. Its discovery was a huge step in cosmology. The redshift of distant galaxies and the cosmic
background are not the only confirmations we have that the Big Bang model is correct. For example, the model also makes predictions
about the elements we see in the Universe. At first, when the Universe was dense and
hot, only subatomic particles could exist. But as the Universe cooled, for a brief time,
they could fuse and form heavier elements. The Big Bang model predicts certain abundances
of elements — ratios of them, compared to hydrogen — and that’s just what we see
in the Universe at large. Also, the size and shapes of large structures
in the cosmos are in line with what a Big Bang model predicts. There’s lots of other
observational evidence as well. Pretty much every modern astronomer on Earth understands
that the Big Bang model of how the Universe got its start is the correct one. But what does it mean? I mean, physically? It’s a very common misconception that the
Big Bang was an explosion in space, with everything rushing away from some point. But that’s
not what’s really happening. Remember, I’ve talked about space being
a THING, in which matter and energy exist. Space can be warped, bent, by mass, creating
what we think of as gravity. When we talk about the Universe expanding,
we mean space itself is expanding, and when it does it carries galaxies along with it.
In a sense, it’s like having a rubber ruler. When you pull on it, it gets longer, and the
distance between the tick marks gets wider. When the ruler doubles in length, the tick
marks that started out a millimeter apart are now TWO mm apart. But tick marks that
were ten centimeters apart are now 20 cm apart! In other words, the farther away a tick mark
is, the faster it appears to move away. Sound familiar? That’s just what galaxy
redshifts are telling us. It also means that, really, the galaxies aren’t actually doing
any moving, it’s that space between them is expanding. This may seem like a nitpicky
semantic point, but it’s physically true. The galaxies are, for all intents and purposes,
standing still. The space in between them is where all the action is. And it gets even weirder: This is true no
matter where you are in the Universe. From any galaxy, it looks like all the others are
rushing away from you. Look back at that ruler: No matter what tick mark you start with, when
the ruler stretches, from that spot it looks like the tick marks are all moving away from
you. This is what Einstein’s equations showed,
and what Lemaîtres saw in them. Space is expanding! But that means the Big Bang wasn’t
an explosion in some pre-existing space, it was the initial exploding expansion of space
itself. The Universe isn’t expanding into anything, because it’s all there is. There’s
nothing outside the Universe for it to expand into. This also means the Universe has no center,
no point of origin. Imagine the ruler is now a circle, and the diameter is expanding. No
tick mark is the actual center, yet no matter where you are, on the ruler, every tick mark
appears to move away from you. In a similar way, every spot in the Universe appears like
the center, which means…none is. No place in the Universe is more special than any place
else. We’re all in this together. It can be hard to grasp, and I’ll admit
we all have some difficulty with these concepts. But the math bears them out, and so do essentially
all the observations we make of the distant Universe. And in all this weirdness, don’t lose sight
of the big picture: The Universe had a beginning. And we can see evidence of it! Not only that, but by measuring how quickly
it’s expanding, we can use math to run the clock backwards and determine the age of the
Universe. Currently, the best measurement we have of the age of the Universe is 13.82
billion years. Or perhaps I should say: 13.82 billion years! That’s an amazing number. It’s a long,
long time — three times older than the Earth — but what gets me is that we can figure
it out at all. Pretty smart, us apes. Today you learned that distant galaxies show
a redshift in their spectra, which means they’re moving away from us. The Universe is expanding!
This means it used to be hot and dense, then it started expanding and cooling. This model
of the Universe’s early behavior is called the Big Bang, and it was confirmed when the
background radiation — the glow of the fireball — was detected in the 1960s. Other lines
of evidence support it as well. Using this information, we have measured that the Universe
is nearly 14 billion years old. Crash Course Astronomy is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. Head over to their YouTube channel to catch even more awesome
videos. This episode was written by me, Phil Plait. The script was edited by Blake de Pastino,
and our consultant is Dr. Michelle Thaller. It was directed by Nicholas Jenkins, edited
by Nicole Sweeney, the sound designer is Michael Aranda, and the graphics team is Thought Café.


  • Maruthi says:

    You can see back in time

  • merle ackeret says:

    What about blue shifted objects

  • Game Guy says:

    1:29 actually, lots of scientists believe one day, the universe will lose all of its energy and collapse. this is called "the big crunch theory"

  • Uvindu Abeysekara says:

    What if time is getting shorter instead of the distance getting bigger
    Would that make it seem like the distance is getting bigger?

  • A J says:

    Just in the first 20 sec he explained why we created religion. Perfection.

  • Blake Jones says:

    Vesto Slipher: now there's a Jedi name right there!

  • h4hashir says:

    Why did my testicles float across at 1:33

  • h4hashir says:

    Ok I think I get it…But there are a couple of concepts I just don't get maybe someone here who's smart can explain.
    1. if all the mass of the universe was in one singularity won't that create a ball in space thats so heavy nothing can come out of it? How could the "bang" even occur? I know he said there was a lot of heat… if that's the case how come black holes form? Is it Dark Energy that caused the bang by expanding space? This is so hard to grasp!
    2. Secondly, if space in fact bends and we know for sure it does -How do we pin point location of a star thats billions of light years away? Mustn't the light have detoured from many curvatures along the way? Curvatures from galaxies, stars etc…?

  • Orauk says:

    I always had trouble understanding when people would say that the universe will expand and gravity won't ever cause matter to come back to a single point. This video cleared up about 15 years worth of wondering why.

  • Jeppe Bonde Weikop says:

    I have a hard time grasping this. If the universe expands with time, that would mean that it has an ever-increasing, but certain size, right? In a way, there's a "border", then? So what's on the other side? How can the universe just stop?

  • Elemental King says:

    Why didn’t the universe just become a black hole if it was so dense

  • David Howard says:

    Science does not know the age of the universe. No matter how hard you try and how many equations you come up with, you will never know the age of the universe. The big bang has 0 evidence to back its claims. The particles did not magically just appear one day, they were put there by "something".

  • Modern Atheist says:

    Was the entire universe in the singularity or just the observable universe? Also, did it create spacetime?

  • qwerty uiop says:

    We sill may not know anything about universe. Maybe its muliverse, maybe its a simulation i mean we don't know until we know

  • William Davis says:

    How does a universe that started expanding from a point not have a center? And edges? It must have to begin with. And a little after to begin with, et ceteta. Ad infinitum.

  • REME says:

    Phil, you produce some of the best knowledge-videos there is. Thank you.

  • Apodis says:

    Are there any galaxies that are moving towards us that are blue shifted, or does some weird reason mean they are all red shifted?

  • Webis Tebis says:

    The big bang was actually your mom farting.

  • Ethan Mckinney says:

    suggesting that the universe was created by a bang and is also always expanding also suggests that there is an observable center to the universe.

  • Rino Levesque Jr says:

    I'm pretty late to the comment party… Call me ignorant, i probably am… but Why is it assumed that space itself is expanding when, from what i could figure, all matter contracting at the same rate would look the same?

  • Blobvis Nator says:

    I have a feeling THE big bang wacht THE big bang theorie
    And Sry for my bad english

  • Warren Garabrandt says:

    It seems weird somehow to me to measure the age of the universe with a unit of measure that didn't exist for the first 2/3 of the Universe's existence.

  • sam clark says:

    Religious people left the chat

  • Feminist Warrior says:

    birth of black hole = big bang = new universe

  • Dauminator63 says:

    i still don't understand though how galaxies can be going apart yet the Andromeda galaxy will collide with us. It seems to me that there will be a big crunch, and what were seeing so far away is the universe expanded to a certain point before the gravity of the galaxies will overcome the dark energy

  • Chaos A.D. says:

    Le'Maitre has a cooler name because it means "The Master". 😉

  • Felipe Alvarez says:

    Millennium Falcon +1

  • Charlie Angkor says:

    How to make your car go half the speed of light? Park it in a distant galaxy.

  • Charlie Angkor says:

    what would happen if I poked at the big bang with a screwdriver?

  • Charlie Angkor says:

    when all the matter in the universe was crammed in a tiny atom sized space called the cosmic egg, it was way smaller than the Schwarzschild radius, so the universe should have been forever stuck in a form of black hole. I don’t understand it.

  • Charlie Angkor says:

    If the space is expanding, is the time expanding as well? Since its one spacetime…

  • zeal shah says:

    If we are looking in past when we are observing any object in space and is going away from us or which is redshifted then how can all things can be in one place and the big bang theory be true as everything is expanding and not converging when observed in past?

  • Thad ward says:

    How can you say "space itself is expanding" as if there was nothing there before hand and that there was nothing on the other side of this expanding space? How could anyone possibly know that, or prove it? And if there is something on the other side of this expanding space was it not just more space?

  • Thad ward says:

    If something starts expanding it obviously had an origin so it's false to say that there is no center. We just don't have any practical way of finding it.

  • mikev190 says:

    Stories… You mean religion right?

  • AL Can says:

    If the Big Bang or the “space itself is expanding” theories are true how could the Milky Way galaxy collide with another galaxy?

  • Tristan Good says:

    lol, I wont be around when the earth becomes 14 billion, none of us will, there will be a new generation, like quite a few more generations actually

  • Nery Rodriguez says:

    this is so bad go make video about fortnite and i will sub

  • Nery Rodriguez says:

    you suck

  • Nery Rodriguez says:

    cool :] !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Julie Temores says:

    One higher piece to be exact

  • Dalton Duncan says:

    But what makes the universe expand? Is it like a drop of dish soap in a puddle of oil, that our universe is made of oil and a universe of dish soap has collided with it? Or is it vacuum of nothingness that is pulling the something towards it?

  • Raymond Serfontein says:

    why doesn't the universe have a centre? I never understood it

  • Larry Davis says:

    When you pull on it, it gets longer! 😂😂

  • LiViro1 says:

    1:35 Hallelujah, ye scurvy land crabs!

  • Hydroponic City says:

    Big Bang?

    The Qur'an says that "the heavens and the earth were joined together as one unit, before We clove them asunder" (21:30). Following this big explosion, Allah "turned to the sky, and it had been (as) smoke. He said to it and to the earth: 'Come together, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We come (together) in willing obedience'" (41:11). Thus the elements and what was to become the planets and stars began to cool, come together, and form into shape, following the natural laws that Allah established in the universe.

    The Qur'an further states that Allah created the sun, the moon, and the planets, each with their own individual courses or orbits. "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon; all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course" (21:33).

  • Mj Saini says:

    How can galaxies collide if the space is moving away …..?

  • Arceus The God Pokemon says:

    i'm suprised by the lack of intensity of the comment section flame war… good on you, humans! ^-^

  • Jean-philippe c says:

    What confuses me is that at any second, the universe has a defined shape with a defined volume. If it does, wouldn't there be a place in it where all edges of the universe be at an equal distance. No?

  • Leycree says:

    Aliens be like: pretty smart? Have you figured out quantum gravity yet? Yeah thought so

  • NetherPrime says:

    my question has always been what formed the universe then? like, something does not come from nothing, so what was that something?

  • Hi & Hello says:

    I am literally the centre of the universe… take that Mom!

    …I just won’t tell her that she’s also the centre of the universe….

  • Gilder von Schattenkreuz says:

    I still think that what happened is just that our Universe has basicly been a Gigantic Black Hole which reached Critical Mass and then Exploded.

  • Mathew Roussell says:

    Was thinking about the big bang and it's expansion please don't laugh too much please 😂. Just a thought.
    What if the big bang banged twice the first bang produced all the matter and antimatter in equal amounts and almost immediately after the first bang the matter and antimatter started to attracting each other as more and more matter and antimatter annihilated each other at a very fast rate pressure was building and with the matter antimatter collisions mass was being lost then when the pressure from all the matter antimatter collisions overcame the attractive force of the matter and antimatter and caused a second bang that blew the matter and antimatter apart in opposite directions. In other words what's past the edge of our universe I believe it's an antimatter universe.

  • Vah0n1 Manuel-Scott says:

    Is there an edge to the universe? if that's the case then what on the other side of that edge? if not, then what the universe? is it a place? is it a source of energy, a plain of existence manifested in such a way that humans can sorta understand it? these are the question the human race has struggled with for millennia.

  • vpustel says:

    But what about, instead of starting at one point and then expending endlessly in a linear way, the universe could be PERIODICALLY expanding and shrinking. The same way everything inside it seems to be working in a periodic ways? Has this hypothesis ever been falsified?

  • buddhism is universal truths says:

    The word kalpa, means 'moment'. A maha kalpa consists of four moments (kalpa), the first of which is creation. The creation moment consists of the creation of the "receptacle", and the descent of beings from higher realms into more coarse forms of existence. During the rest of the creation moment, the world is populated. Human beings who exist at this point have no limit on their lifespan. The second moment is the duration moment, the start of this moment is signified by the first sentient being to enter hell (niraya), the hells and nirayas not existing or being empty prior to this moment. The duration moment consists of twenty "intermediate" moments (antarakappas), which unfold in a drama of the human lifespan descending from 80,000 years to 10, and then back up to 80,000 again. The interval between 2 of these "intermediate" moments is the "seven day purge", in which a variety of humans will kill each other (not knowing or recognizing each other), some humans will go into hiding. At the end of this purge, they will emerge from hiding and repopulate the world. After this purge, the lifespan will increase to 80,000, reach its peak and descend, at which point the purge will happen again.
    Within the duration 'moment', this purge and repeat cycle seems to happen around 18 times, the first "intermediate" moment consisting only of the descent from 80,000—the second intermediate moment consisting of a rise and descent, and the last consisting only of an ascent.
    After the duration 'moment' is the dissolution moment, the hells will gradually be emptied, as well as all coarser forms of existence. The beings will flock to the form realms (rupa dhatu), a destruction of fire occurs, sparing everything from the realms of the 'radiant' gods and above (abha deva).
    After 7 of these destructions by 'fire', a destruction by water occurs, and everything from the realms of the 'pleasant' gods and above is spared (subha deva).
    After 64 of these destructions by fire and water, that is—56 destructions by fire, and 7 by water—a destruction by wind occurs, this eliminates everything below the realms of the 'fruitful' devas (vehapphala devas, literally of "great fruit"). The pure abodes (suddhavasa, meaning something like pure, unmixed, similar to the connotation of "pure bred German shepherd"), are never destroyed. Although without the appearance of a Buddha, these realms may remain empty for a long time. It should be noted that the inhabitants of these realms have exceedingly long life spans.
    The formless realms are never destroyed because they do not consist of form (rupa). The reason the world is destroyed by fire, water and wind, and not earth is because earth is the 'receptacle'.
    After the dissolution moment, this particular world system remains dissolved for a long time, this is called the 'empty' moment, but the more accurate term would be "the state of being dissolved". The beings that inhabited this realm formerly will migrate to other world systems, and perhaps return if their journeys lead here again

  • Dave Stephens says:

    So red shift is when light moves away from you, I got it. But since red light is also lower energy, what if when traveling the great distances between galaxies, light looses energy, and that causes a red shifting as well, simply due to distance? That would make it appear the universe is expanding, even if it was static but very large.
    I guess if the universe has also been shown to be accelerating this may not add up, but it seems plausible to me if light can loose energy & shift in wavelength this way. may2019

  • Bhim says:

    If all galaxies are running away from us then why Andromeda galaxy is heading towards us

  • JWC says:

    If the universe is expanding constantly… does that mean that am I getting fat all the time, but just don't know it because everything else around me is also getting fat??

  • twoweary says:

    Why does whatever went "bang" have to be really small ? It just doesn't seem logical that all the matter in the universe was crammed into the size of a pea (or smaller) before it went "bang" . Let alone what changed in that pea , that made it go "bang" . Just asking .

  • Tom Williams MTBer says:

    So if it all came from nothing and nothing turned into something what was nothing

  • Alex Parer says:

    Just call it "science" and they'll swallow it whole.

  • Alex Parer says:

    Amazing. So many lies presented as facts in one short video.

  • Doodelay says:

    Now 1.25 × 10^10

  • Kay Rulz says:

    Goddamn ! This ape is smart

  • george pimentel says:

    technically/Ironically: since space is expanding from everywhere, any point in space you look at, whether north or south, will be the starting point of the Big Bang. but, The Milky Way and M-31 are on a collision course and The Great Attractor is pulling countless galaxies towards something. why

  • Don't, Jim Angius says:

    Uncontested for sure! I thought that in the millisecond between hearing his name and you saying it.

  • Jm Miguel says:

    What do you mean by "the glow ofthe fireball left by the universe"?

  • Aarush Swordlight says:

    what is space expanding into?????

  • Ehena Choudhary says:

    The thing that I love most about crash course hosts is that they are all passionate about the subject they are imparting knowledge on. They have the twinkle in their eyes and the spark in their words telling us how awesome all of this is.

  • Gowtham Tab says:

    If black holes formed by stars then, after big bang only massive stars should have been formed from left over parts of the biggest star after big bang and that stars should have been formed again in into supernova and from that supernovae stars in that supernovae stars again should have been formed from the leftover and so on
    Like this canis majoris should form a small galaxy after it is gng supernova due to its mass
    So this universe should have formed by only so massive and biggest stars only not from a dot.

  • rey c. says:

    I dont want to argue with anyone but i found this mind blowing when the quran states "Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We separated them, and made from water every living thing?  Then will they not believe?” (Quran 21:30)
    "Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, then We separated them, and made from water every living thing?  Then will they not believe?” (Quran 21:30)
    Agreeing with the big bang theory

  • Neutron Pixie says:

    If two galaxies are moving away from each other so that their combined speed equals 1mph faster than the speed of light, would visible light from those stars cease to exist?

  • RatherBeEmbed says:

    +1 for flying spaghetti monster

  • james forest says:

    love the jab at religion very brave

  • William Burdzel says:

    But how can something be created from nothing? And what created that first molecular reaction? There has to be a true beginning

  • mysticboy says:

    Pretty smart? We have destroyed the planet and managed to pollute even the planetary orbit! We are dummer than the apes 1000 times…

  • Rhea Booth says:

    Praise the noodly one!

  • laeeque nadvi says:




    " O company of jinn and men,if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth,then penetrate (them)!

    Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction".

    سورہ الملک
    The Sovereignty

    تبارک الذی بیدہ الملک , و ھو علی کل شئ قدیر الذی خلق سبع سموات طباقا , ما تری فی خلق الرحمن من تفوت , فارجع البصر ھل تری من فتور . ثم ارجع البصر کرتین ینقلب الیک البصر خاسئا و ھو حسیر .
    Blessed is He in Whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Power;-
    He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving;-
    He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?
    Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.
    And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.
    For those who reject their Lord (and Cherisher) is the Penalty of Hell: and evil is (such), Destination.

    We are asked to observe, study and research the cosmos again and again, and as minutely as our powers will allow. However closely we observe the cosmos
    we shall find no flaw in creation of Almighty Allah.

    The universe is so vast and stretches so far beyond our ken,that our eyes aided with most powerful telescopes will confess themselves defeated in trying to penetrate to the ultimate6 mystries.

    We shall find no defect in Allah's handiwork: it is our own powers that we shall find fail to go beyond a certain compass.


  • Paul Purdue says:

    Astronomers know that the universe was "created" by the Big Bang because their theory built a model, that model could make a really cool back ground for a science fiction movie. But then so would a multiverse or a holographic universe or a parallel universe or a make up your own version of the universe. Anything, even its a flat earth after all, anything, except a geocentric universe,..that would be cosmological heresy.

  • TheOicyu812 says:

    1:32 – Thanks for giving the FSM a cameo in the video. I also would have accepted Russell's Teapot or the Invisible Pink Unicorn as substitutes.

  • Sujit Kumar says:

    No matter how you look at the expansion from singularity, I see there’s a central location where the singularity was. And that the galaxies which stuck to our side of the expanding balloon are moving away much slower from us compared to those diagonally opposite of the expanding balloon. That is if we can see them at all in today’s date.

  • Kile B says:

    Science has been wrong on definite findings many times with the information they had at that time REMEMBER PEOPLE WHEN WE THE OBSERVER ALTERS OUTCOMES!

  • Kile B says:

    This actually contradicts previous episodes on space /Galaxies

  • Vladimir Kool-Aid says:

    The universe is still young, it's lived a fraction of its life. We, my friends, are the forerunners.

  • Bruce Lee says:

    Don't get it. So by the expanding rubber ruler, all plants are squeezed together in one spot at the beginning??

  • Plane Reality says:

    It's great playing in Fantasyland so for just some reason this supposed infinite amount of mass that was infinitely hot just decided to explode.
    Where did this energy come from and why did it just decide to explode.
    You're so realise that you cannot have infinite mass that is physically impossible

  • Joel Masanza says:

    Scientists: We are detecting a strange source of background microwave radiation.
    Also scientists:It MuSt Be biRd PoO!

  • Jean-Baptiste Moquelin says:

    Imagine George Lemaître.  On Friday, arguing with Einstein about physics and WINNING.  And on Sunday, consecrating the eucharist.Take that, flying spaghetti monster!

  • Joey Shofner says:

    Something had to exist before the Big Bang. I believe that our universe started with the Big Bang. But something had to exist before, we just don’t know what yet.

  • Marlon Silva says:

    Sir if we go back in time the universe becomes smaller and smaller and the density increases
    But what is around that whole point(small universe )

  • Eleeth Tahgra says:

    If…mass warp spacetime. And if mass of black hole warp spacetime sooo bad that it became incomprehensible, how much warp was experienced by spacetime by the cosmic egg? Since, you know, it contain more mass than the entire universe….

  • Ancile says:

    How do we know science is not another method, albeit more complex, to make up stories to give us the illusion of understanding? Behind every one of our theories and models are a whole lot of question marks.

  • Kai J says:

    If the universe is expanding in all directions wouldn’t that make the universe a sphere, so then it has to have a centre… right?

  • Christofer Fellicious says:

    Could someone help me out here. If the Universe is expanding how is Andromeda galaxy moving towards us? Is it simply the gravitational force between the two galaxies or are there some other forces at play?

  • IntermediateJesus says:

    2:14 Vesto Slipher sounds like the name of a bounty hunter from a galaxy far far away. How is that a real name?

  • krasimir kalinov says:

    Where is the lithium? 8:50

  • ?? says:

    Where did the light from the early universe travel too?

  • C W says:

    You know what I love about true scientists? They're more accepting to religious concepts than most people think they are. They've calculated back as far as they can and most of the very best scientist gladly and honestly throw up their hands and say "we just don't know, maybe it's God." The real sign of intelligence and wisdom is being able to honestly say that you don't know everything and that you're open to any legitimate evidence that and Advance your knowledge.

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