What’s Outside the Universe? Searching For Evidence of a Multiverse

What’s Outside the Universe? Searching For Evidence of a Multiverse


A few hundred episodes ago, I answered the
question, “What is the Universe Expanding Into?” The gist of the answer is that the
Universe as we understand it, isn’t really expanding into anything. If you go in any one direction long enough,
you just return to your starting point. As the Universe expands, that journey takes longer,
but there’s still nothing that it’s going into. Okay, so, I need to put an asterisk on that
answer, and then when you read the fine print it’d say something like, “unless we live
in a multiverse”. One of the super interesting and definitely
way out there ideas is that our cosmos to actually just one universe in a vast multiverse.
Each universe is sort of like a soap bubble embedded in the cosmic void of the multiverse,
expanding from its own Big Bang. And in each one of these universes, the laws
of physics are completely different. There are actually a bunch of physical constants
in the Universe, like the force of gravity or the binding strength of atoms. For each
one of those basic constants, it’s as if the laws of physics randomly rolled the dice,
and came up with our Universe – a place that’s almost, but not completely hostile to life. So imagine all these different bubble universes
popping up in this vast cosmic foam of the multiverse, and the laws of physics are different.
Maybe in another universe, the force of gravity is repulsive, or green, or spawns unicorns. In the vast majority of those universes, no
life could ever form, but roll the dice an infinite number of times and you’ll eventually
get the conditions for life. Any lifeform capable of perceiving the Universe
had to evolve into a universe capable of life. Of course, this sounds like pseudo scientific
mumbo jumbo, and next you’ll expect me to talk about chakras, astrology and channeling
the spirit of Big Foot. However, hang on a second, this might actually
be science. If these bubble universes got close enough, there might be a way they could
rub together, to interact in ways that were detectable from within the Universe. In other words, we could look out into space
and see a cosmic bruise, and know that’s where our universe is colliding with another
one. Well, have astronomers looked out into space,
in search of some sign that our Universe is interacting with other universes? Indeed they
have, and they’ve found something really strange. When examining the Cosmic Microwave Background
Radiation, the afterglow leftover from the Big Bang, astronomers have found a temperature
fluctuations. These different temperatures, or anisotropies are regions where different
densities of matter in the early Universe were scaled up to enormous scales by the ongoing
expansion. While most of these differences in temperature
are explained by the current cosmological theories for the Universe, there’s one region
that defies the theories. It’s so strange, the researchers who discovered it hilariously
named it the “Axis of Evil” after something some president said. Anyway, there are lots of ideas for what the
Axis of Evil might be. Seriously, every single one of them is more reasonable and more likely
than what I’m about to say. But one really fascinating idea is that we’re
seeing a region where our Universe is bumping into another universe, violating each other’s
laws of physics. So if this is the case, and astronomers are
witnessing a universal interaction, what does this mean for the poor aliens who might be
getting overlapped by the next universe over? We have no idea, but imagine what might happen
as the laws of physics from two completely different universes overlap. What is the average
of 7 and green? Or 26 and unicorn dreams? Whatever it is, it can’t be good for the
aliens and their continued healthy existence. But don’t worry, that region is billions
of light years away, and it’s probably not another universe anyway, we just need better
observations. We covered this topic in great detail in episode
408 of Astronomy Cast, so if you want hear more from Dr. Pamela Gay, click here and watch
the show. You’ll especially enjoy watching me pick up the shattered pieces of my brain
as I try to wrap my head around this mind bending concept. What aspect of cosmology and the Universe
would you like to know more about? Let me know your ideas for shows and I’ll get researching. In our next episode we talk about the newly
discovered Planet 9. Oh, and make sure you stick around for the
blooper. Our Patreon community sees entire blooper
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74 Comments

  • JuEon Kim says:

    I always ask myself who(what) made the universe, who made the one that made the universe, what was there at the beginning of all of this who made that beginning lol I think this could go on and on forever.

  • Cai Howson says:

    Could it be possible that, if you zoom out, our universe is just organized like a giant elliptical galaxy without a center point it orbits around, and that different universes are organized just like galaxies too? And the space between universes is just like the space between galaxies, just much much greater because, well, the distance between galaxies are so great, that when you scale that up to universe size, the distance between universes are so great that you can't see the light from their galaxies. And if this were true, could that mean that those other universes exist within the same reality that we do, so therefore their laws of physics and everything are the same? And if this were the cases, that could mean that, whatever the big bang was, is an event that happens all across what I call the cosmic reality (the space that holds stars, galaxies, and in this case, universes too) and creates galaxies in a similar way to ours. So while those other universes would be totally different from ours, the same basic laws of reality would apply.

  • 15th Doctor says:

    What's outside the multiverse foam?

  • Dark Horse says:

    Given our limited "observable " view, of the universe, surely our CMB plot is a tiny slice of it and unlikely to be at any edge crashing into another unibubble

  • Mauricio Micoski says:

    Ney, Fraser, love your show! Here os a question: so sad about Cassini's ending, I Wonder If It would be possible to Create a ressuply mission, or to make a ressupliable mission?

  • N E S Y says:

    Why cannot we travel to another universus?

  • Evolution Inc. says:

    Wow, this video was…

    Universal.

  • Joshua Rice says:

    please tell me this guy isnt a teacher 😂

  • Antonio Higgins says:

    I absolutely believe there are hundreds of billions or even trillions of universes. Think about it everything is at that scale including atoms up to cells and then stars, galaxies. Why would there only be 1 universe? We used to think there was only 1 sun and 1 planet

  • WORLD FRIENDS says:

    But whats outside that???

  • The BeatlesFan69 says:

    How do you go to another universe?!

  • Eric Lawrence says:

    Fraser Cain, Dungeons and dragons fan? Do you play DDO?

  • colin Paterson says:

    As we believe that the Universe is flat why can't it be a leaf in a book of multi-verses? Or even for that matter a leaf on an all inclusive cosmological tree (Yggdrasill? ) As for the colliding what about the stories of time slips and mysterious people that have allegedly appeared?

  • Paudy Gallifrey Byrne says:

    Why are u so dismissive of the multiverse??

  • Mr Wrestling says:

    Just think in some universe BLM might matter. Just not in ours.

  • Hustling Days says:

    When he said pseudo science I thought of Republican Space Rangers from GTA 5 online.

  • Kristian S says:

    Other universe = Other dimensions. The dimensions do overlapping, but we don´t have the technology to capture it.

  • Sammy Sam says:

    Since astronomers need a better way and form of observation, could we send a telescope to pluto or farther to increase observations? Would a telescope that farther away allow for farther observation or is there no actual difference for observation with earth and pluto? I know it's far fetched and highly unlikely to happen, but would we see more or no?

  • symmetry says:

    What's outside the multiverse?🤔😺.

  • Tommy D says:

    Love the multiple D&D references.

  • Suzy Siviter says:

    In an infinite universe perhaps asking "Why do unicorns dreeam of cheese?" is just as important as any logical question we could ask..

  • Christa D'Auria says:

    Before his death on April 14, 1955, Albert Einstein as the famous 1921 Noble-winning German-Jewish American physicist-mathematician had his famous & well-known theories in General Theory of Reality–1) Infinite or Finite Universe, 2) "Bubbles of Universes ", 3) "Squares of Universes", 3) Extended Universe, and 4) Multi-Universes (Multiverse). Our today's scientists still continue the research projects about our universe for years in a long search as it's so difficult in a fact. Christa D'Auria

  • Ergo Sum Adrieyl says:

    How My Jewish mind rationalizes this??
    Maybe outside the universe is a space where God exist, Creating and designing. A “nothingness” we don’t understand. And it’s beyond our comprehension because there exist a plane we aren’t ready for yet. The cold spot or “axis of evil” is a gateway that we pass through on our final and greatest journey.

  • Science Is Awesome says:

    What was before multiverse

  • Science Is Awesome says:

    He said 'spawn' and 'mumbo jumbo' in one video, something isn't right here

  • constellationpegasus says:

    This bothers me. Just a theory to get around the cosmological constant problem.

  • inox1ck says:

    Universes with different laws colliding seems hard to imagine. Our world is apparently made of quantum fields and waves. Things aren't even moving. The amplitude of the waves propagate that means some amplitude rises in one place and rises further away, therefore the motion is illusive. How could another universe get closer to ours? In my opinion, if the space between the universes is free of fields, information cannot travel through it. Free space cannot exist as room for fields to permeate and if it did It couldn't be detected. The space that enables propagation has some precise properties and can hold the fields, it is not just void. It is like the the memory of a computer. The free bits are not void space but they are allocated on a real board. A virtual 3d free space is not just void but an allocated space on a real memory board.

  • Mike Lincoln says:

    This guy is good, but still below power when dealing with the subject, I dont mean in knowing facts, anyone can spout facts, but his intellectual grasp.

  • Aa Bb says:

    Right ………. Thats why its called theoretical physics which means the crap this guys chatting is crap because it cant be proved lol. Mate come back when you have done your own research not just regurgitating others people theories.

  • Wildgraywolf1 says:

    Yeah, unicorn dreams.

  • D Lane Taylor says:

    I believe there is an infinite number of universes as well as an infinite number of singularities. I believe that these are all inside of a "Universe Container". Another thing I like to think about is that maybe it is possible that there are other realities (in that this universe container is our own reality) and that there are an infinite number of other realities. Nothing from each reality could touch the other realities.

    And if all of these universes are recycled previous universes, our universe could be made up of refinements of other universes making it incredibly old.

  • CuriousG says:

    Its beyond the human understanding no one can get the secret

  • Daniel says:

    I like your videos Hank, you keep them somewhat short and explain things really easily. Thanks for the content. Subscribed.

  • Andy Best says:

    Well in the flash they go to another earth in a different universe they call it earth 2 and the one who breaches the portal says each universe vibrates at a different frequency meaning the different frequencies keeps them from colliding into another and causing chaos

  • SixSixteen Sevens says:

    Using evolution as a template, does it mean the big bang happened before, but didn't quite work, say a billion times until it got the mix of gravity, time and space right?

  • John Medina says:

    My personal theory for the Cold Spot and the Axis of Evil: Look at two water droplets on a surface (or floating inside a space station at microgravity) coming close to each other, in slow motion, they start to merge, until they become one larger drop. If one of the drops is water, and the other a drop of…coolaid, as they merge, they mix together becoming half water half coolaid, mixing their properties. If there is something we might compare to gravity in the omniverse that causes portions of different universes to be drawn together (and merge) and as they get closer, I think the Axis of Evil might be like a waistline of where two universes merged, some leftover imprint that is still visible after the physical constants of the two universes mixed together. (And perhaps the Cold Spot is like the far end of the other universe that merged with the one that we technically originated in.*) The merging of the different physical constants of these universe did change each other, but when their different physical constants mixed, In essence their pasts mixed together too, meaning we perceive there being one history; one beginning, to our universe. Perhaps the ways these universes merged and changed each other's physical constants could explain things like how inflation stopped abruptly some time after the Big Bang.

    Anyway, that's my rambling. I'm sure my thinking has huge holes in it, but that's my basic concept.
    *As a side-note, if you think traveling a hyper-spherical universe is interesting—going in a straight line long enough ends you up in the same spot that you left, just like circling our spherical Earth—just imagine traveling a hyper-hourglass shaped universe—the hourglass-like shape that is formed in between the two universes as they merge, until they finish merging together and they smooth back out into one larger hyper-spherical universe.

  • My Memories says:

    Holly shit this is what Bhagvad Geeta says. It says there are countless universes like ours. They come into existence and die, like bubbles in the cosmic ocean. Bhagvad Geeta agrees with multiverse theory.

  • Henry Söderholm says:

    Thank you for your fine educational videos. I have a question, scientist's say that Earths rotation is slowing down. What does that mean for us living on earth? How about the Earths poles flipping?

  • X S says:

    Woeeee it could be good for beings in such universes or areas of overlapping universe and or we could even be products of such overlap. For you to say it couldn't be good is premature, as we don't have enough info to make such conclusions

  • John Delynn says:

    I believe all the dough-nut, flat or multi-verse theories are merely HUGE speculations. Even if they were true, there still has to be an outside that will never end. It's impossible there isn't. The universe HAS to be infinite. There has to be space outside of singularity (Big Bang). I also believe there's an infinite amount of Big Bangs expanding forever.
    If we or any other possible life in the cosmos were to survive long enough which is completely impossible, the observable universe will expand to the point to where we would never see stars, planets, galaxies, black holes, or anything else. Just dark empty space that expands forever. The same thing would happen to all the other Big Bangs they themselves expand and all drift apart from each other into empty infinite space………. Just my crazy theory.

  • Andros Kai says:

    the average of 26 and unicorn dreams is easy: its just 13 plus half of unicorn dreams.
    now if its a weighted average then thats harder…

  • charjl says:

    "In the beginning there was nothing. Then the universe was blown out of a bubble wand"

  • mark findlay says:

    I don't know about the universe but my girlfriend is expanding into my wallet !

  • goodcat1982 says:

    can you do another video about whats outside the multiverse. Thanks 🙂

  • mercedezalisra says:

    We are those poor aliens, That is why trump is president.

  • David Levesque says:

    What happens when the universe we're in changes to a different state of matter? Will the intelligent being's of this universe go to where the previous properties still exist, or adjust to the new state of matter universe, we have now entered.?

  • Nisarg Chadha says:

    Then what would be the laws of physics in the void of the multiverse?if there are none,then how can different multiverse even interact

  • SixSixteen Sevens says:

    What role does pi play in the universe?🤔

  • Midnight Milly says:

    the real question is is there another version of use? is there other people liveing in another universe? is there anybody Liveing there?

  • Antti Salonen says:

    Frasier, that is a fascinating concept but since light and gravity travel in a wave form and at constant speed, doesn't that mean that no other universe could (at least not all the time) exist in the same phase as we do? And to take it a little further, if there were instances where the exact same thing happened in more than one universe and in the same phase along the event tree, would that not require "room" in all the intersecting universe's, resulting in expansion, explaining dark matter / energy in the process?

  • grateful says:

    More fairy tales.

  • ozzynomicon says:

    The universe we know is a supermassive black hole inside of another supermassive black hole universe. Think of a bubble. Inside of a bubble. With another bubble connected to the bubble on the inside. And the outside bubble surrounds the inside bubble. But the inside bubble can be accessed outside of the outside bubble through black holes.

  • masao shiose says:

    Greg Bear's favorite themes : Reality as a function of observers

  • Joe Gendy says:

    we got from a circle to another bigger circle basically so the question remain standing if you know what i mean

  • Joe Gendy says:

    oorrr it's just collapsing somehow just saying since we don't fully understand it so that revives all options

  • Joseph Nash says:

    What if dark energy underlays this multiverse, and just like galaxies are moving away from each other due to dark energy in our universe, other universes are also moving away from each other due to dark energy? Universes may be created naturally as a way to slow down (put the brakes on) run away dark energy. Just a theory.

  • David Maximo says:

    I find this episode is very disappointing. Multi universe theorist jumped on this cold spot to say it validates their theory.
    as he said in this vid the least likely explanation of the cold spot is multi universe bruising but failed to say what is the most likely which it is within normal variance of temperature fluctuations.
    Facts are the Judaeo christian god is based in science more than multi universe. as neither can be proven scientifically …Ever
    At least there is archaeological evidence backing the bible that some events and previously unknown states existed.
    So lets not call Multi universe science, maybe philosophy but is more appropriately a religion and only way to believe in it is through faith.
    Just a thought, in all those infinite universes that continue to be created from every possibility, from every action taken or not taken on earth, (for what unknown reason the multiverse would pay so much attention to one planet) Couldn't a superbeing spontaneously generate that could go back in time and in 6 days create this universe and life?

  • Ranjan Sarma says:

    if 'our' universe is colliding with another one, the container of the two 'universe' is the actual universe. now question recurs. what is outside the universe.

  • J̅o̅h̅n̅n̅y̅ F̅a̅v̅o̅r̅i̅t̅e̅ says:

    The Visible Universe is but a small segment of a single cell among trillions that comprises an unfathomably immense organism; a being which itself occupies an impossibly small fraction of a multiverse beyond human comprehension.

  • Brian Jones says:

    What evidence do we have that would suggest separate universes having a whole new set of laws of physics? Why can't they all be the same?

  • Lalit Sharma says:

    What if all humans suddenly vanished

  • Dana V says:

    I always wonder if you travel in a straight line to the end of the universe o you hit a wall or gel type plasma? Then what is beyond that? Then when you keep traveling to the end of that what's beyond that?… So on and so forth.. Can the darkness we see between the stars go on forever? Seems there would be something containing the whole thing and what would that be contained in? So on and so forth.. my brain starts to hurt if I think about it too hard. Some say "there is nothing there yet because the universe is expanding into nothing" that sounds redicules and is harder to fathom than what's beyond the dark..

  • Tim Suetens says:

    Why does anything have to exist at all?

    I suspect it just does. Humans like to ask questions, even if there are no answers.

  • Jason Clouse says:

    This video is great but is sadly lacking any Rick and Morty references. 😟

  • Patrick McCartney says:

    Could dark matter and dark energy, which does not seem to follow any known laws, be a separate universe passing through ours?

  • Edward Teach says:

    An interesting topic about Time Travel, can we go back in time? Is Time Travel, Scientific or is it science fiction? Can we build a Time Travel machine or a Time Travel spacecraft?

  • Ba' Stefano says:

    I would like to know more about 'nothing'. What it is? Does 'not-being' exist or does it not?

  • colin mccarthy says:

    It is not what is outside our Universe.
    Our Universe was created through the
    Big Bang at a Point of Singularity.At
    that Point of Singularity,E=mc2.Where
    did that Energy come from.The Laws
    of Thermodynamics states that Energy
    cannot be Destroyed,but can change
    from one form to another form of
    Energy.
    I believe at the same Point of Singularity,that another Universe
    collapsed on itself(Big Crunch)
    and created our Universe.In other
    words the Energy of the collapsing
    Universe equals the Energy in
    creating our Universe at the Point
    of Singularity.This Energy is E=mc2.
    As I said Energy cannot be Destroyed.
    Where did the other Universe come
    from.That Universe was created at
    another Point of Singularity,where
    the Universe expanded and then
    collapsed(Big Crunch) into the
    Point of Singularity which created
    our Universe.Our Universe will expand
    and then it will collapse at another
    Point of Singularity.This will go on
    forever more with Universes collapsing
    at Points of Singularity and also
    creating Universes.
    As I said our Universe was created by
    another Universe collapsing on itself.
    That Universe was created at another
    Point of Singularity whereby it expanded and collapsed to form
    our Universe at the Point of
    Singularity.All previous Universes were
    created and collapsed at Points of
    Singularity going back in time
    forever more.At each Point of
    Singularity,the Energy is E=mc2.
    As I said Energy cannot be Destroyed.
    I have studied Engineering,Technology
    and Science in my Professional Career.

  • 45 North says:

    Do the fundamental laws result in our universe or does our universe result in the fundamental laws?

  • carpe diam says:

    The universe is an illusion. The Simulator knows that we can't travel faster than the speed of light, and he knows we will never be able to know more than what we can see .

  • actuary 1776 says:

    Did you just say if you travel far enough in the universe you wind up back at your original starting point? Isn’t the going consensus that as far as we can tell the universe is flat?

  • Christine Herson says:

    I think it is a multiverse. I think as one universe expands, another or others grow smaller and visa versa. Like breathing, like blood corpuscles, like cells. As above so below. Just a thought.

  • Calum Brook Nicolson says:

    A lot of people who have near death experiences, where they die for a brief period of time, are brought back to life with prefound visions, which betain to an afterlife, and I think the afterlife they see could be outside of the universe, so there could in theory be an afterlife outside of the universe.

  • dread true says:

    Hi. Sorry, but if the universe is expanding, is expanding into something.
    Like to say, if the universe is getting bigger , is because there is "room" for that
    Other kind of space. Vacuum. Something.
    But these hypothesis , are impossible to science to 'investigate' , so… nobody talk about it.

    Ps- I'm a big fan of your channel, or better , of the Playlist "Big Bang" since you have tons of videos, lol.

  • Lurkens Kanal says:

    if its infinate, there is a universe out there with dickformed planets swimming backwards around the sun in a triangular orbit?

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